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Archive for June, 2008

负面反思

中国人缺乏诚信和社会责任感。中国人不了解他们作为社会个体应该对国家和社会所承担的责任和义务。普通中国人通常只关心他们的家庭和亲属,中国的文化是建 立在家族血缘关系上而不是建立在一个理性的社会基础之上。中国人只在乎他们直系亲属的福址,对与自己毫不相关的人所遭受的苦难则视而不见。毫无疑问,这种 以血缘关系为基础的道德观势必导致自私,冷酷,这种自私和冷酷已经成为阻碍中国社会向前发展的最关键因素。

中国从来就没有成为一个法制社会,因为中国人的思维方式与守法行为格格不入。中国人老想走捷径。他们不明白这样一个事实:即成就来自于与努力工作和牺牲。 中国人倾向于索取而不给予。他们需要明白一个道理:生活的真蒂不在于你索取多少而在于你能给予社会和你的人类同胞多少。

大多数中国人从来就没有学到过什么是体面和尊敬的生活意义。中国人普遍不懂得如何为了个人和社会的福址去进行富有成效的生活。潜意识里,中国人视他们的生 活目的就是抬高自己从而获得别人的认知。这样一来,一个人就会对”保有面子”这样微不足道欲望感到满足。”面子”是中国人心理最基本的组成部分,它已经成 为了中国人难以克服的障碍,阻碍中国人接受真理并尝试富有意义的生活。

中国人没有勇气追求他们认为正确的事情。首先,他们没有从错误中筛选正确事物的能力,因为他们的思想被贪婪所占据。再有,就算他们有能力筛选出正确的事情,他们也缺乏勇气把真理化为实践。

中国人习惯接受廉价和免费的事物,他们总是梦想奇迹或者好运,因为他们不愿意付出努力,他们总想不劳而获。很少有中国人明白一个事实,就是威望和成就是通 过一步步努力的工作和牺牲实现的,不付出就没有所得。简单来说,如果是为了谋生,那一个人只有去索取;但如果是为了生活,一个人必须要去奉献。

中国的教育体系很大程度上已经成为一种失败和耻辱。它已经不能够服务于教育本应所服务的对象:社会。这个教育体系不能提供给社会许多有用的个体。它只是制造出一群投机分子,他们渴望能够受益于社会所提供的好处却毫不关心回报。

中国可以培养出大批的高级能人才,但却很少可以培养出合格的可以独立主持的管理级专家。服务于一个公司或者社会,光有技术是不够的;还需要有勇气,胆量, 正直和诚实的领导才能,这恰恰是大多数中国人所缺少的品性。正如亚瑟.史密斯,一位著名的西方传教士一个世纪前所指出的,中国人最缺乏的不是智慧,而是勇 气和正直的纯正品性。这个评价,虽然历经百年,如今依旧准确诊断出中国综合症的病因。

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Photographic lenses, used properly, have always been sharp, even at the dawn of photography in the 1840s. Optical design is a much older science than photography. The reasons some photos aren’t sharp rarely have anything to do with the lens.

Some men (never women) worry themselves silly about lens sharpness. When I started serious photography in the 1970s, I was warned that there is a segment of the hobby where all people do is take pictures of brick walls and newspaper classifieds, but never make any photos of anything worthwhile.

http://www.kenrockwell.com/tech/lens-sharpness.htm

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Why shoot photo?

Photo is a record of life, by skillful hand. Thus, life is first, skill follows. Shoot photo with heart, see what others cannot see, catch what others ignore, that’s the purpose of photography. A good device will help you to reach the goal easier, but it is never the goal.

Do not try to impress others, impress yourself first.

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1. The fundamentals never go out of style.

Big, long projects can become grim, and in the worst cases they can appear to become a death march. But hyper-productive projects, says Booch, never forget the four fundamentals:

  1. Create crisp and resilient abstractions.
  2. Maintain a good separation of concerns.
  3. Create a balanced distribution of responsibilities.
  4. Focus on simplicity.

The key in creating useful abstractions, says Booch, is to use an object-oriented view of the world, rather than an algorithm-based viewpoint. Think about things, he says, instead of processes.

Separation of concerns, says Booch, means, “You don’t put the dishwasher in the bathroom.” The specifics depend on the requirements, but he advises, “Semantically related things should be clustered together and kept separate where they are not.”

Design fundamentals also include avoiding an architecture that’s too “lumpy.” You don’t want to design a house with an enormous kitchen but just one bedroom, for instance.

Don’t underestimate the importance of keeping things simple, he warns—or the difficulty of getting there. “It requires energy to develop simple things,” explains Booch. It’s worth the investment to ensure that every software release includes a step in which developers give attention to simplifying, he says. But it is an investment. Management has to be willing to throw out features even if it cost money to develop them.

2. You need a regular rhythm of releases.

Every project needs a heartbeat, says Booch. “Establishing that rhythm provides predictability and sustainability.” Regularity lets everyone plan on what functionality or features will be injected into the next round, he says, regardless of release frequency.

3. Focus upon growing executable architectures.

IT managers need to govern around the architectural decisions rather than raw, running, naked code. “The code is the truth,” Booch says. “But the code is not the whole truth.”

4. Create social structures that encourage innovation while still preserving predictability.

Teamwork is an essential ingredient in any large software project, so companies should give attention to creating relationships that work. Businesses need predictability (when will this software really ship?) and they also want innovation (make it do something cool!). Building a social structure to support both those goals isn’t necessarily easy, but the successful projects find a balance.

One long-standing point of contention is the degree to which, in those social structures, the manager is a participant in the actual software development process. The architect should also be an implementer, says Booch, even if a line is drawn between development and managers. But there’s a danger of noisy communication when management gets too involved; it’s the difference between a line and a wall.

Another component to creating innovative teams, says Booch, is keeping developers out of “blasted meetings” so they can get things done.

Creating a workable social structure is harder when team members are temporally and geographically dispersed. Booch pointed to IBM’s research project, BlueGrass: Virtual Worlds for Business, which is taking a stab at a solution by providing social interaction for “heads-up” work—mimicking hallway chats and water cooler meetings. The aim, says the BlueGrass site, is to provide people with more visibility into the presence and work of people on the distributed team, and to support brainstorming with simple creation of objects in the world.

His own advice: Get people together in virtual meeting places if you can’t get them together in the same time zone. You need to create places where the opportunity for trust can be created. It should be okay to talk about your dog in the developer chat room, he says; if teams are fostered well, eventually work really will be accomplished.

5. Have fun.

That’s not simply friendly advice; Booch believes that successful projects come from teams that are jazzed about what they’re doing. “Most people want to build beautiful, elegant things,” he says. “If you rob them of that, you’re taking away the passion of the craftsman.”

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